To understand basic principles of various mechanical operations, construction and working of the equipments.
Course Outcome • Ability to understand ﬂuid particle systems and equipment • Ability to select suitable size reduction equipment, solid-solid separation method and conveying system
• Ability to analyze mixing processes • Understanding of ﬂuid ﬂow through ﬂuidized beds • Understanding liquid-liquid extraction and Drying
UNIT-I : Particle Size distribution
Importance of particle size in reactions, particle size, shape and mass distributions,measurement and analysis, concept of average diameter.
Screening equipment, capacity and eﬀectiveness of screen, eﬀect of mesh size on capacity of screen. Particle size analysis:- mean diameter, derived diameter. Sieving -cumulative method and diﬀerential method.
Transportation and storage of solids
Studies performance and operation of diﬀerent conveyor systems like Belt, Screw, Apron, Flight, pneumatic conveyor and elevators; Storage of solids and discharge pattern from storage bin.
UNIT-II : Size Reduction
Factors aﬀecting size reduction, comminution laws : Kicks law, Rittingers law and Bonds law and their limitations. Crushing eﬃciency & power consumption.
Size reduction equipments
Grinder Construction and operation of Hammer mill, Ball mill, Ultraﬁne grinder Fluid energy mill, Cutting machines: knife cutters.
UNIT-III : Separation based on particle Mechanics through liquids
Free settling and Hinderd settling, Stokes law & Newtons law regimes of settling. Clariﬁers and thickeners, ﬂocculation, batch sedimentation (Kynch theory), rate of sedimentation.
Theory and principle of solid liquid ﬁltration, cake ﬁlters, discontinuous pressure ﬁlter: principle and working of ﬁlter press.
Mixing & Agitation
Principles of agitation, agitation equipment, Solid solid mixing equipment, Mixing eﬀectiveness and Mixing index. Flow patterns in Agitated vessels,Impellers,Types of impellers,power consumption of Impellers.
UNIT-IV : Liquid-Liquid Extraction
Ternary equilibrium. Solvent selection. Single stage. Multi-stage cross-current, counter-current extraction. Equipment for liquid-liquid extraction. Design of Liquid Liquid Extraction Columns.
UNIT-V : Drying
Introduction, Equilibria, Drying rate curves. Mechanism of drying, types of dryers. Design of batch and continuous dryers. Solid Dryer Design.
UNIT-VI : Fluidizaion
Introduction to ﬂuidization, Types of ﬂuidization, Conditions for ﬂuidization, Minimum ﬂuidization velocity.